Civil War Diary
The Civil War as it would have been experienced by Carl Knuth aka Charles Knuth. Carl Knuth was later the founding patriarch of the William Knuth Family in Augusta Wisconsin
An American Civil War Diary by 'Ole Kittelson Leigram' b. 1839.
Ole Kittelson Leigram signed up and served in the same division with Carl Knuth (aka Charles Knuth), the father of William Knuth and the immigrant founder of the Knuth family in the Augusta Wisconsin Area. This diary is included in the Knuth records because both Ole and Carl (Karl or Charles) Knuth would have experienced the same life and service during the Civil War years from 1862 to 1865.
Ole Kittleson Leigram and Carl Knuth, the father of William Knuth, both served in the same unit in the American Civil War as American Immigrants.
It is not known if they were acquaintances but one would assume that theyencountered each other. Ole was of Norwegian descent with Carl Knuth was of German descent. Both were immigrants in an English speaking American Army. Both would have experienced the same events and agonies in the American Civil War.
Kittleson served in the 15th Infantry (primarily Norwegian speaking) and Carl Knuth in the 45th Infantry (primarily German speaking). Both were mustered-in in Rio Wisconsin in 1862. Both were mustered-out at about the same time in Milwaukee in 1865.
Reading this Diary reflects Carl (aka Charles) Knuth experience in the Civil War!
The Army during the American Civil was a conscription Army, the first in American History. The public was incensed with this forced military service. Of the over 240,000 called only 6%, or about 15,000 served. Those conscribed could hire another to serve in their place. (Look up the Draft Riots of 1863 for a more detailed understanding)
Service members were often mercenary immigrants (working for the government) or mercenary for the conscribed (working in the stead of those drafted). The Army pay and offer of veteran benefits was an opportunity for new, young, and immigrant Americans to earn and gain a financial foothold as they started their life as Americans
Authors Note: This above is a generalization of many detailed events in American Civil War History.
FACTS CONCERNING THE Original AUTHOR
FULL Name: Ole Kittelson Leigram
DATE OF BIRTH October, l839
PLACE OF BIRTH: Norway
WHERE LIVED BEFORE CIVIL WAR: Rio, Wisconsin
WHERE LIVED AFTER CIVIL WAR: Wisconsin, Nebraska, Minnesota & South Dakota
MARRIED TO: Ingrid Vaalor
CHILDREN: Ida, Alma, Carl, Anna, John & Cora
OCCUPATION: Farmer and School Teacher
DATE: OF DEATH: April 29, l889, aged 49
WHERE BURIED: Riverside Cemetery V Aberdeen, South Dakota
The family name was Leigram but when Ole Kittelson Leigram enlisted in the Army, for some reason or no reason, the Leigram was left off. After the Civil War, he tried to again use Leigram but as all of his military records were under Ole Kittelson, he could not change it.
The Civil War Diary of Ole Kittelson Leigram
August 20, 1862 Enlisted under Lt. Low.
Sept. 8 Went to Fall River.
Sept. 13 at four o’clock in the morning we left Fall River and were given a ride Columbus Wisconsin. Took the train from there and came to Oshkosh after dinner.
Sept. 16 We were examined by the doctor.
Sept. 20 Injured my right hand.
Sept. 25 Inducted in U. S. Army.
Sept. 27 We were paid for one month
Sept. 28 We got $25 bounty.
Oct. 2 We went home on furlough.
Oct. 3 Got home
Oct. 5 Norwegian dance at rich Tor’s
Oct. 7 Went back to Oshkosh. Got there at seven o’clock in the evening.
Oct 18 Received my town bounty of $45.
Oct 30 Left Oshkosh or Camp Bragg after noon and went on board the train.
Oct. 31 Arrived in Chicago at 6:00 in the morning. At two in the afternoon we left Chicago and got to Cairo at 7:00 in the evening.
Nov. 1 Left Cairo by steamboat.
Nov. 2 Arrived in Columbus Ky.
Nov. 3 Came to Memphis, Tennessee. and made camp l miles from the town.
Nov. 26 Left Memphis. Made camp at 7:00 in the evening 20 miles east from Memphis.
Nov. 27 We marched 15 miles and made camp in a woods at 11:00 in the evening.
Nov. 28 Marched 25 miles
Nov. 29 We didn’t move.
Nov. 30 Marched 20 miles and camped in a cornfield near Chalohoma, Tennessee.
Dec. 1 Stayed in camp near Chalohoma.
Dec. 2 We marched until 3:00 p.m. and camped near Wayzot, Mississippi. It rained the whole day. Now the supplies of what we needed to sustain life became more scarce than at any previous time.
Dec. 7, 1862 We left Wayzot and marched 10 miles. Camped near College Hill seven miles from Abbeville, Mississippi. The same evening I went on picket duty. Andrew Tosnos became ill during the night on the same post I was on.
Dec. 15 It rained hard.
Dec. 17 I was on picket. It as a clear and beautiful day but cold.
Dec. 20 Left College Hill or Camp Musk and came to Waterford at 11:00 at night. We marched 30 miles.
Dec. 21 We left Waterford in the morning and came to Holley Springs at 11:00 a.m. ten miles from Waterford. We expected to see the enemy there but we got there three hours too late. They had destroyed all our government stores burned down more than $3,000,000 worth.
Dec. 22 At 11:00 at night we left Holly Springs and marched the whole night and the next day without stopping. In the evening at five we got to Grand Junction. In 18 hours we made a march of over fifty miles of crooks and turns. When we came to Grand Junction our regiment consisted of 100 men and 2 officers namely Lt. Low of Co. K and Lt. Richmond of Company E. Our company was made up of 8 men and Lt. Low. The biggest part of the regiment didn’t come to the camp until the 29th.
Dec. 25 Christmas Day. I was on guard duty. Neither beer nor whiskey.
Dec. 26 On guard duty. We got a little whiskey. It rained hard.
Dec. 28 Left Grand Junction and went by rail to Trenton - 70 miles.
Dec. 29 Our regiment left Trenton but I remained because of a foot infection.
January 1, 1863 At 1:00 in the morning we were called out because ‘they
had heard that the enemy was at hand and would that morning come to give
us a Now tar9o visit but they hadn’t come, they went around another way.
Jan. 2 I was on guard.
Jan. 7 Left Trenton at 4:00 p.m. and went to Jackson, Tennessee
Jan. 11 Mail came to us for the first time since we left Memphis. I received seven letters.
Jan. 14 It rained hard.
Jan. 15 Snow.
Jan. 16 Cold.
Jan. 17 Same
Jan. 18: Mild
Jan. 19 Rain.
Feb. 1 We got orders to go to Memphis.
Feb. 2 Left Jackson and went to Four Mile Camp four miles from Memphis.
Feb. 7 I got sick with pneumonia.
Feb. 9 The regiment went to Memphis.
Feb. 24 We were paid for the first time since Memphis. I got $18.00
Feb. 2 It rained hard all day. In town on patrol.
April 14 We got four months pay. I got $12.00.
May5 We were out scouting. We left camp at 2:00 a.m. and went in wagons - each wagon drawn by six mules. There were six men in each wagon.
May 19 The loud gong sounded at 3:00 a.m. and then there got to be rustling and commotion in camp. Nearly all half naked men ran for their lives as we thought the enemy was beside us in our tents. Later we lined up to wait for the enemy coming and were thus until daybreak. (Obersten had dreamed that night that he had seen a rebel)
May 24. At 11:00 at night our company was commanded to go out scouting but we were ordered back after we had come a distance from the camp.
June 6 With much festivity, the citizens of Memphis celebrated. Many tales were given by men from different parts of the state as well as by some of our most fluent officers.
July 14. Pretty dark in camp. A negro boy was shot to death in town. Here there was a deep stillness although now and then there was a cannon shot
Aug. 4. I got sick.
Aug. 14 We got four months’ pay.
Aug. 15 I was in town and visited with Elias Erickson.
Aug. 16 Thunder and unusually heavy rain.
Aug. 20 We moved our tents.
Aug. 21 Rain
Aug 23 Cold at night.
Aug. 26 I got the fever.
Aug. 31 I got a bottle of French whiskey and a bottle of wine from John Ambroson.
Sept. 2 I visited with Halvor Soronson.
Sept. 23 During the night we got orders to pack and be ready to march. Captain Grout under arrest
Sept. 30 Halvor Sauvo visited me.
Oct. 1 I received ten dollars cont to me from home.
Oct. 10 The first day I was on duty again since the last of June.
Oct. 21 We began building our new quarters
Oct. 25 We moved into our new camp.
Nov. 3 We got orders to go out on a two days’ scouting expedition. left Memphis at 3:00 p.m. and went to Germantown — 15 miles from Memphis. We got there at 5:00 p.m. At.8:00 p.m. the left wing of our regiment was ordered to go further. We went to Colliersville, nine miles from Germantown. We got there at 11:00 p.m. and were quartered in a small fort. We took our bed rests in muck two feet deep under the open sky. It rained so hard we thought another flood was at hand. Here we should have had an encounter with the enemy but it was just over when we got to town.
Nov. 4 We buried the dead rebels. Our regiment buried 26. During the night there was more unusually heavy rain.
Nov. 5 Camped on the south side of town.
Nov 8 During the night I was on guard in an open field and it was cold enough to ________
Nov. 9 At five p.m. we were ordered back to Memphis and got there at 11:00 p.m.
Nov 12 we were given clothing.
Nov. 13 We got four months pay.
Nov. 16 We were released from guard duty.
Nov. 18 Received a 16 pound box from home.
Nov. 22 Brigade review.
Nov. 25 We got orders to leave Memphis.
Nov. 26 At five in the morning we left Camp Chilse. We marched 15 miles to Camp Germantown.
Nov 27 In the morning we left Germantown and marched 12 miles. We camped two miles east of Lafayette in an old cornfield. It rained hard during the night.
Nov. 28 More rain. We marched out of the cornfield in muck and water up to the knees. Went 1/2 mile and camped.
Nov. 29 At seven in the morning we left our camp in the woods and marched 15 miles. We came to LaGrange at 4:00. The day was cold. We were quartered in a courthouse in the east part of town
Nov. 30 We remained quiet.
Dec. 2 we moved out of the courthouse and camped on the west side of the town.
Dec. 3 Dark.
Dec. 4 Our company was ordered out on the railroad 8 miles east of LaGrange to guard while the rails the Southerners had destroyed were repaired. After we had been there two hours we were ordered back to LaGrange. When we got to LaGrange we had orders to move. At once we started out for Moscow (the fastest ride Id had in the south or any other place.) We got into the line of battle. Just when the enemy began to desert the town. We pursued them for half a mile. We again formed a line of battle but they didn’t give us any attack. We stayed there until the sun went down and then went back to Moscow where we remained over night. Our losses were small. Some negro soldiers were killed and a few of the cavalry. The Southerners had many casualties and a great many injured which they took with them to some houses some distance from town.
Dec. 5 We went back 9 miles from Moscow and made camp at 4 p.m.
Dec. 6 I was on guard.
Dec. 7 Inactive today except for. company inspection.
Dec. 8 & 9 Rain.
Dec. 10 We left Lafayette and went back to Moscow.
Dec. 11 We sat up our own tents.
Dec. 14 We tore down a Methodist Church so we could build our quarters.
Dos. 15 Received a quantity of horses because we were to become mounted infantry.
Dec. 16 Rain
Dec. 17 Guard duty. Ordered to march.
Dec. 20 We left Moscow at 2 p.m. Marched ten miles and came to LaGrange in the evening at 5:00.
Dec. 22 Some recruits belonging to our regiment came
Dec. 23 We left LaGrange and came to Grand Junction — 4 miles east of LaGrange.
Dec. 25 The second Christmas holiday in Uncle Sam’s service. I went to LaGrange with some others of our company as guards with the provision wagons. Whiskey did much damage. Some got very drunk.
Dec 26 A Beautiful Day
Dec. 27 Went on guard duty in the morning. At 2:00 p.m. we got orders to march. We went on the wagons to Lafayette. We were ordered off the wagons and marched two miles into the line of battle — two miles in pitch dark through brush and swamps - muck and water up to the arms. Our advance fired and fought with the enemy but our regiment didn’t get a chance to fire at them though the bullets roared over our ears as flies after sugar. After the battle was over we went into a cornfield and lay there until 3 a.m. wet to the ears with nothing to cover up with and cold as the devil.
Dec. 28 At 3:00 in the morning we left Lafayette and marched along the railroad tracks toward Colliersville about three miles. Then we went to the left and marched southward. After marching in muck and water we came to Colliersville.
Dec. 29 At 11:00 p.m. we were called out. At 2:30 a.m. we started marching. We went in a southeasterly direction. We stopped at 9:00 a.m. and had something to eat and drank a little coffee. At 10 we started out again. That day we tramped 25 miles and camped in a heavy woods beside the Coldwater in Mississippi - five miles from Holly Springs
Dec. 31. In the morning at 8 we went back. We marched to Mount Pleasant and camped there overnight. We left Mount Pleasant and came back to Colliersville. It rained and snowed the whole day and at night it was terribly cold.
January 1, 1864 Cold. In my estimation this was
the coldest day in the south. We left Colliersville at four and went to
Jan. 2 We got to Grand Junction at 8:00 in the morning. In the afternoon I was on guard.
Jan, 3 Unusually cold.
Jan. 10 Company inspection.
Jan. 16 We got orders to march from Grand Junction
Jan. 17 In the morning at seven we left the Junction and came to Moscow at four. From that time until the next morning it rained and snowed constantly. We lay under the open sky like cattle and in the morning when we were to get up we were frozen in the muck. Lucky beasts who struggle thus for their country and government and at last maybe will got a bullet for compensation and the corpse food for the foxes. And if that shouldn’t be his lot on this damned earth, then maybe to become a cripple and so come home among our former acquaintances.
Jan. 18 Left Moscow and went to Lafayette. Unusually cold
Jan 19 Remained quiet in camp
Jan. 20 I and two others were fired upon by a band of Guerillas - but, thanks, we escaped.
Jan. 21 Got orders to prepare for a long and difficult march
Jan. 23 On guard duty. A beautiful day.
Jan. 24 Today we got two months’ pay now we are paid up to January 1, 1864
Jan. 25 We were out on a scouting expedition three miles from camp. Orders were to go to Memphis tomorrow at seven.
Jan. 26 Left Lafayette and marched with Full pack 18 miles. Came to Germantown at four. it was a warm day and more than one drop of sweat was spilled.
Jan 27 Left Germantown at 5:30 and came to Memphis at 12 noon. W made camp two miles east-northeast from town.
Jan. 28 I was in town - big commotion and alarm. The town was full of soldiers and most of them were confused.
Jan. 29 At four p.m. we heard the Steamer, Anna. In the evening I was in town.
Jan. 30 Didn’t move. Big commotion and alarm on board. No one except the officers were permitted to go on land.
Jan. 31. In the morning at six we left Memphis and went 96 miles to Helena where we had to land at 6 p.m. because of strong winds.
Feb. 1 Left Helena.
Feb. 2 Came to Vicksburg. Marched through town and camped five miles east of town.
Feb. 3 Major General Hurlbot inspected us. At 2 p.m. we left camp and marched four miles. We camped right next to Grant’s base of operation.
Feb. 4 Left that place at 6 a.m. and marched in an easterly direction. At 12 we went over Black River 16 miles from Vicksburg where we now lie and rest. At 2:30 we left Black River bridge and marched until five. Then rested until 1at night.
Feb. 5 Marched until 4:00 a.m. and stopped by Champion Hill. Guarded the Wagons. Camped in a thick woods.
Feb. 6 Marched at five p.m. Our brigade guarded the wagon train. Burned a rebel commissary and ordinance store. The mail went back to go out to Vicksburg.
Feb 7 Started marching at 4:-- and came to Jackson, the Capital of Mississippi at 8. Our regiment was on patrol duty until 5. At 6 pm we left town ad went over to Purl River. Afterwards we chopped the floating bridge loose. We marched ten miles from Jackson and camped at 11:00 pm besides the Jackson and Mobile railroad
Feb. 8 At 8:00 a.m. we prepared to march, we got to Brandon - 14 miles from Jackson and went on 6 miles beyond. At 10. we camped and that night went on guard. Cold during the night.
Feb. 9 Went by the l7th Army Corps (ours was the 16th). Marched 2 miles. Many stragglers.
Feb. 10 Marched at the back of the corps. Came to a little town named Hillsborough. Five miles from there we stopped for diner. Then we moved on half a mile and made camp in a little woods. We took 9 rebels as prisoners.
Feb. 11 Marched through swamp and muck about five miles. Then we were reviewed by Generals Sherman and Hurlbot. Camped in a thick forest.
Feb. 12 & 13 Companies E, K and G guarded the train. Marched twelve miles and came to the little town of Decatur which that day had been burned down by our cavalry. We went 3 miles from Decatur to a little river. we were cut down to half rations.
Feb. 13 Guarded prisoners - about 20. Marched 12 miles and camped in a field - a hard march through swamp, through valleys and over hills.
Feb. 14. Marched a tough route of 12 miles and camped near Meridian in the east corner of town. Part of the town had been burned down but that had been done by the Rebels.
Feb. 15 In the morning it began to rain. We were quartered in some Rebel hospital buildings. Co. K was out on picket.
Feb. 16 In the morning at six we got orders to move. We went 1 mile out on the railroad tracks and began to destroy them. During the day we destroyed five miles of track. In the afternoon we had a skirmish with the enemy by a little town called Marion. None of ours injured. We camped overnight by Marion State one mile from Meridian.
Fee. 17 Went out to again destroy the railroad. we burned five miles including some houses. In the evening we moved our camp a mile from town.
Feb. 18 Lay quiet. Cold.
Feb. 19 Went 9 miles out to the railroad station of Lockhard where we had heard some of the enemy were but none were to be found. We destroyed the railroad and came back to camp at 6 p.m. We were than informed that our expedition were over and our work here completed. The order for us to return to Mississippi was announced and also how that was to be conducted.
Feb. 20 In the morning we left Marion Station and marched 18 miles in a westerly direction. We camped beside a small river.
Feb. 21 Started marching at 6 a.m. we went twenty four miles and camped at a place called Union
Feb. 22 Started marching at 7. We marched 13 miles and camped at 2:00 p.m. Our camp was on steep hill and in a deep valley. This day we took as prisoners 1 rebel major and 2 other officers and some privates.
Feb. 23 Started at 6:00 a.m. Went 3.3 miles by 2:00 p.m. to Hillsborough where the 17th A.C. that same day arrived. They brought the provision wagons which we of the 16th A. C. had abandoned Feb. 3
Feb. 24. Left Hillsborough at 10 and marched 13 miles. Camped at 7. Burned corn for supper days of starvation and quarter rations.
Feb. 25 Started at six and marched until 11:00 when we stopped to make dinner but we had nothing with which to make it and nothing to eat.
Feb. 26 Came to Canton in the evening.
Feb. 27 I got sick.
Feb. 2 In camp two miles from Canton.
Feb. 29 I was sent to the hospital.
March 1 Left Canton. This day we went about 17 miles. Those of us who were ill were quartered in a house.
March 2 Went about 19 miles.
March 3 Moved early in the morning and went about 1 mile. Crossed Dreck River and camped four miles from it. Co. K guarded the bridge all night.March 4. I came back to the company from the hospital
March 5 We got mail. Also in the afternoon we had general inspection.
March 6 A beautiful day. I visited with some boys from Wisconsin.
March 7 1 was in town on a pass. The town was filled with soldiers of all colors.
March 9 It rained hard. Most of us got wet as rats.
March 10 Went on board a steamboat — Era — at six p.m. and left Vicksburg two hours later. We moved the whole night unhindered.
March 11 Good luck again. We moved one whole night.
March 12 Trouble with the boat. We landed on a little island near the Arkansas side.
March 13 In the morning a tug boat came and hooked on to our boat. Guerillas fired upon us. We got orders to load our guns and that this done in greatest haste but we couldn’t see any more of them
March 14 Good luck.
March 15 Came to Memphis — Camped on the Arkansas side. Michael Guneson was sent to Memphis to the General Hospital
March 17 After dinner we got orders to gather our gear and went aboard the steamer, C. E. Hillman and went over to the Memphis side. In the evening we left Memphis and sailed up the river. It was so cold I thought I would freeze to death.
March 19 Landed in Cairo Ill., in the morning and made camp a mile north of the town.
March 20-23 Cold
March 24 At two in the morning we got orders to pack our two blankets and a day’s provisions. At 9:00 we boarded a steamboat and landed at Columbus Ky, at 11 am. There we heard that Forest had captured Union City twenty five miles from Columbus in the State of Tennessee. The right wing of our regiment was sent off but the left wing remained by the river. In the evening they came back. We couldn’t all get on board so our regiment had to wait until 10 p.m. Then we were sent aboard the steamboat Jennie Deans and landed that night at Cairo Illinois.
March 25 We went on land at 6 a.m. It rained during the day. We got orders to march the next morning. At 10 at night we were routed out and sent on board the steamboat White Cloud.
March 26 At one a.m. we sailed up the Ohio River and landed at 5:00 a.m. by the little town of Paducah (50 miles from Cairo) which Forest the previous day had tried to take. After we had been there an hour Forest sent a flag of truce that we should surrender but when that couldn’t occur he didn’t make further effort. We lay in the harbor all day except when we were out and plundered the town. I found a cellar full of whiskey - and then the encampment was really lighted up. The whiskey was free and all drank as much as they wanted and as long as they wanted to.
March 27 At noon we left Paducah and went up the Tennessee River
March 29 Landed 2 miles from Savannah and there we got orders to go on land.
March 30 Early in the morning our regiment went inland 17 miles from the river. I remained on the boat.
March 31 They came back
April 1 I was on watch. Our company went on land.
April 2 Landed at Waterloo at 10 a.m. Camped there at night - our first camp in Alabama
April 3 At 9:00 am we started marching in an east south easterly direction about nine miles and camped at a place called Grove Spring. It rained hard during the night. Our camp was on a high hill
April 4 Started marching at 6 a.m. - a hard days march in slush and water knee deep for about 13 miles — a beautiful town which lies on the Tennessee River. We camped 1½ miles north of town in a field on the edge of a high hill by a clean stream. The countryside is beautifu1, consisting of hills and valleys – many plantations. Many streams of varying sizes empty into the Tennessee River.
April 5 We left Florence. We crossed Shale Creek Bridge which is about 80 rods long. We crossed over another little river called Bulsie Creek about 14 miles from the Tennessee River. We marched through hills and valleys about 22 miles and camped at the foot of a big hill beside a little river.
April 6 Starting at 5:30 a.m. we marched in an easterly direction fifteen miles and camped at five beside a little river. That night I was on guard duty.
April 7 Started marching at 6 over high mountains through valleys and streams of varying sizes. It was terribly hot. That day we marched eleven miles and camped on the south side of Elk River which we crossed on a pontoon bridge.
April Started at. 6:00 a.m. in rain. Marched 14 miles and camped one mile north of a town beside the railroad tracks.
Aril 9 Started at 5:00 a.m. Reached the Tennessee River a noon and crossed over on a pontoon bridge made of 72 boats each 20 feet long. We camped near Decatur which lies on the south side of the river.
April 10 We remained quiet the first day of rest for four months.
April 11 A beautiful day. We moved our camp about 10 rods.
April 14 Began to drill — drilled three times a day from 6 to 7 - guard mounting to 9 - drill - Battalion drill from 2 to 4:30. - Dress parade at 5 p.m. Roll call at 5 p.m. and 8 p.m.
April 16 A dispatch came that the enemy was only six miles from our camp coming toward us and wanting to take the town. There were said to be 12,000 strong and consisting of cavalry and mounted infantry
Apr1 17 Our regiment was called out.
April 18 Out scouting. Came back in the afternoon.
April 19 Had general inspection.
April 24 I was guarding camp. The weather was cold and clear.
April 27 Company K out by a little fort to support a little battery of the 14th Ohio Artillery in case of need. There was a heavy rain shower during the night
April 2 Warn
April 29 We worded to clr2forld Decatur9 built fortifications. Quite warm. gain during the night.
April 30 we were mustered in the afternoon
May 1 I worked on the fort. Our camp was moved. General Vitch left with his troops.
May 2 All who were not on guard duty worked all night in the fortification. the enemy ont in a flag of true and aakod that we surrender to them. But we woron9t Quite ready.
May 3 Worked on the fortification.
May 4 Warm.
May 5 I was on picket duty. There were firing along firing along the line all night long.
May 6 Of duty. A warm day.
May 7 Worked on the fortification. The whole regiment was put to work. The 17th New York Regiment did picket duty because they didn’t want to work.
May At 4:00 in the morning the enemy tried to take the town but was driven back with losses.
May 10 I was on picket duty. It rained hard during the night.
May 11 Cold.
May 12 Warm.
May 13 I was sick. The 25th Indiana removed their camp beside ours. General Morgan of that regiment took command of our brigade.
May 15 Warm. I worked on the fortification.
May 16 1 was quiet — and rested.
May 17 Worked on the fortification. Rain in the afternoon.
May l Camp guard.
May 19 Warm.
May 20 I was by the railway junction three miles on the other side of the River. Andnes Oleson Tosnos was sent to the hospital.
May 22 Nice weather.
May 23 It rained hard during the night.
May 24 I was on picket duty on the Molten Road quiet along the entire line. No firing.
May 25 Warm during the forenoon. In the afternoon a heavy rain storm
May 26 Our Army Corp G (the 17th) under command of General Frank T. Blair. We got orders to prepare for a four day march.
May 27 In the morning at 8 our brigade went out under the command of General James H. Howe to seek the enemy. We found them three miles from camp and chased them to Courtland - 23 miles from Decatur. The 17th Army Corp. went through Decatur on the way to Atlanta. The 12 — 13 14 15 & 17 Wisconsin regiment were in the corps.
May 28 The regiment came back two injured - none killed or 1ost.
June 1 I was on picket duty. The 10th Iowa Regiment, was out but was driven back. The enemy was too strong for them.
June 2 I had a package to Junction to the Express Office. I got 10 dollars.
June 5 We had company inspection.
June 6 I as on picket duty on the Sommerville Road. Rain.
June 7 Warm. We got four Months pay. I sent home 70 dollars.
June 8 Warm and rain.
June 9 Got orders from C0l. J . Howe to drill three times a day.
June 11 Picket watch on Sommerville Road.
June 14. Ordered to march at 9:00.
June 15 Left Decatur. Marched 15 miles on the Alabama Tennessee railroad to a bridge called Beaver Dam Bridge. Camped there for the night. During the night we got orders to go back to Decatur.
June 16 Started marching at 4 a.m. and got to Decatur at 12. We were all tired and discouraged from marching and from the intense heat. We didn’t get permission to go back to our former camp and that caused much dissatisfaction throughout the regiment.
June 17 We laid out a new camp on the south and far side of the fort. In the afternoon the whole regiment was called out to work on it and to chop down trees and brush.
June 1 Completed making the camp. Heard the news that Petersburg had been taken by our troops.
June 19 At 5:30 we got orders to get ready to go on a scouting trip but at 7 p.m. We got orders to settle down as there wasn’t to be any trip.
June 20 Rain and warm. I received a box by express.
June 24 I was on fatigue duty. At 9:00 am we got orders to go out on a scouting trip with one day’s ration. We went out three miles and then got orders to go back
June 25 I was on picket duty on Sommerville Road
June 26 Got orders to go out on a two days’ scouting trip. We started out at 4 p.m. and went 7 miles along the Courtland Road. We found the enemy but after a few minutes they were out of sight and there was nothing to see but birds flying toward heaven. We stayed there until 10 p.m. and then went back. We got to camp at 12:00.
June 2 At 9:00 a.m. we started out again on a scouting trip. We went out about four miles west and then north until we came to a river and then we marched along its bank. After a while we left the river bank, went through the woods and through an open field. That day we had been in the advance.
June 29 Started marching at 2 a.m. When daybreak came we saw we were right next to a rebel camp. We heard them blow the whistles and in a little while we were in the line of battle. Our company was ordered to the front. We went through their camp but they had taken to flight. Those that were left couldn’t get out of the camp - we found about two hundred as we took them by surprise. We got few prisoners but took all their wagons and many horses and mules (a total of 120). We pursued the enemy about a mile and then stopped because we were both hungry and tired. We stayed there until 7:00 and then marched back toward Decatur. At 6 p.m. we got back to camp. It was an unusually hot day and we were all sore after the days tramping.
July 2 I was on fatigue duty.
July 4 Everything quiet except that cannons were fired in honor of the day. The officers were drunk and come of them wanted to give speeches but they were so confused that the whiskey became the speaker and Mr. Officer the listener.
July 12 We got two pay for May and June.
July 14 I was on picket duty on Moltan Road. A hot day.
July 15 At 9:00 a.m. we had brigade inspection.
July 16 At daybreak 63 rebels came to our camp and surrendered. We also heard a false rumor that Sherman laid taken Atlanta and Grant had taken Petersburg.
July 17 ! was on picket duty on Sommerville Road. 13 rebel’s inc1udng two lieutenants and two sergeants turned themselves over to us voluntarily.
July 18 Everything quiet.
July 20 I was on picket duty on the Courtland Road. Major Carlton came back to the regiment.
July 23 I was on picket duty.
July 24. A detail of 30 men from our regiment were sent out with a part of the 1st Alabama Cavalry to help them bring their families who were four miles from the camp. The rebels overtook them and 9 of them were taken prisoners and 21 came back to the camp. The 32nd regiment was sent out to see if they could find them. We marched to w’.oro they were taken but found no traco of thorn. We turnn around and got hack to camp at 10 p.m.
July 25 We get orders to go out on a scouting trip with 3 days rations. We left Decatur at 3 p.m. - 3 regiments. Infantry, 2 twelve pound cannons, and 2 regiment cavalry. We marched about 12 miles and camped that night in a woods.
July 26 Early in the morning we moved into a little clearing. The 25th Indiana lay in ambush to encircle the enemy. We were to take them from the front but the cavalry came up too early so the enemy became aware of the plan and turned around. The 25th Indiana fired on them but it didn’t do any good. The cavalry took 6 men as prisoners including a lieutenant. We stayed there until in the afternoon at five. Our regiment got orders to go farther. Co. K again was set in the spearhead. We had orders to follow the railroad to Turnspring. When we had marched l ½ we were fired upon but nothing happened. The first platoon of Co. K was deployed in skirmish when we reached the railroad. Woods on both sides of the track were so thick that it was almost impossible to penetrate in the dark.
July 27 At daybreak we got to Turnspring. The enemy had moved toward Courtland. We followed them and got there at 9. At 10:00 the battle began on the edge of town but after about two hours of warm work the enemy began to retire and take flight. We followed them then turned around and. camped on the battleground.
July 28 Left Cort1and at 3:00 a.m. and came to Decatur at 3:00 p.m. Heavy rain in the afternoon.
July 30 I was on picket duty on Moltan Road.
July 31 We had company inspection
Aug 1 Orders for the front.
Aug 4 We got orders to prepare to march.
Aug. 5 We left Decatur a 9 a.m. In the afternoon we left the Junction.
Aug. 6 At four we got to Chattanooga. The regiment left in the afternoon but I together with a detail stayed there until during the night.
Aug. 7 In the morning I left the train. I’d been on and came to Marietta.
Aug. 8 In the morning we left Marietta and in the afternoon we got off the wagons 7 miles from Atlanta. We unloaded the wagons. and camped overnight.
Aug. 9 In the morning at 6 we came to our camp where our regiment lay or had lain the previous day. Uninterrupted firing the previous night. Our cannons were fired the whole day but there was no answer from the other side.
Aug. 10 Hard cannon fire on both sides the whole day. Sergeant Whiten of Company F was killed.
Aug. 11 We moved our camp about 100 rods forward and a little to the right.
Aug. 13 we worked on a fortification on to the right of our regiment. Fiery hot around the ears both from the sunshine and the bullets.
Aug. 15 Moved camp and went into the front line.
Aug. 1 Harry Lovejoy was injured.
Aug. 19 Heavy rain storm during the night. A tree blew down and killed one man in our company - Stephan Trent.
Aug. 20 We were again the left wing of the line of skirmish. No one was injured. Five of us fired 800 rounds in 24 hours.
Aug. 21 Anton White was killed.
Aug. 22 Hard cannon fire on both sides of the line.
Aug. 24 Our company moved to the rear of the line.
Aug. 25 In the morning we got orders to march. We packed our wares and marched two miles to the right. We hastily set up our breastworks.
Aug. 26 We were quiet until in the evening. Then we got orders to march and went in a southwesterly direction the whole night.
Aug. 27 At 5 a.m. we shifted our direction more to the south and came upon the wagon train at 9:00. We rested there until 11:00 a.m. and then marched southward again until 4:00. 15 miles we had marched and we camped that night in a cornfield.
Aug. 28 At 7 a.m. we started marching and went back three miles to the place where we had left the provision train. We then went in an easterly direction 1 ½ miles and camped in a field. We lay there until evening and then marched again in the same direction. We were on the move all night but didn’t go more than two miles because the way was too narrow and the woods and brush too thick.
Aug. 29 In the morning when the sun arose we stopped for breakfast and then moved about a mile before setting up camp. We lay there the whole day. We lived well that day because we had enough to eat.
Aug. 30 At six in the morning we started marching. We went past the 17th A.C (We were at that time in the 16th) Our corps marched left in front. The two corps marched side by side. We made camp at 10 two miles from the railroad.
Aug. 31 In the morning we advanced 50 rods and began to set up our breastworks but just then our company was called on picket duty. At 3:00 p.m. another brigade came and formed in front of us and we were called in. Our regiment (32nd Wisconsin) had advanced and when we came to them they had set up their length of breastworks. We formed to the left of the regiment and got orders to advance on the double quick about 3/4 miles but when we got there the enemy had disappeared although before they showed their backs they had stormed our breastworks three times but each time were driven back with heavy losses. We heard at the same time that the railroad was in our possession. When we came to see we were formed in line to defend it should the enemy get the notion to storm it. We got orders to lie down - which we did. We lay quite flat on the ground. Bullets hailed around us like a hail storm over our flat bodies our noses toward the ground. None of us was injured. We stayed there the whole night. The railroad was still in our possession for that was the point of the argument that day and it was at last decided in our favor.
Sept. 1 We lay quiet this day. In the afternoon we got official notification that we had taken the railroad in our possession the previous day.
Sept. 2 Early in the morning we took possession of Jonesboro. At 9:00 we got orders to break camp. We marched about a mile toward Jonesboro. We stayed there until toward evening and then moved forward. We camped on the south side of the town’s ruins - it was nearly all burned down. We took 40 ambulances loaded with wounded rebs. We made a hospital out of a church and had 90 rebs housed in it.
Sept. 3 We were officially notified that the previous day Atlanta had fallen into our lap. A great hurrah went out from every mans mouth. It filled the air with a lively clang which seemed vigorous enough to repay us for our struggle. But it fell upon the enemies’ ears like a burst of thunder making them aware that their Babylon had fallen. For a time it seemed. to make then deaf and dumb. But it filled their palaces in Richmond with a stinking odor which made Jefferson Davis and his whole cabinet pale as death. And gave them hells heart anguish which bowed them down for the first time and perhaps for the last time on their knees and prayed their servant Satan to prepare a place for them where they might be protected from the damnation which they had themselves underwritten with the blood of the North’s men.
Sept. 4 We lay quiet — Company inspection
Sept 5 Moved a mile back toward Jonesboro and lay there overnight. It rained hard during the. night.
Sept 6 In the morning at 5:00 we started marching. We went through Jonesboro and camped a mile west of it along a line of breastworks we had erected on the 31st day of August
Sept 7 Marched ten miles and camped five miles from East Point.
Sept 8 Went about two miles. Made camp and cleared a camp ground as we expected to stay here a while.
Sept 9 We didn’t move.
Sept 10 Moved about 80 rods behind another line of breastworks. In the evening we heard the rumor that Richmond had been taken or evacuated. General inspection
Sept 15 Moved our tents.
Sept 16 The first dress parade inco we left Decatur, Alabama
Sept 17 Inspection by C01. DeGroto
Sept 18 Company inspection.
Sept 20 I got jar of butter.
Sept 21 I was on picket duty. It rained almost the whole day.
Sept 24 I was in Atlanta on a pass
Oct 1 At 3:00 a.m. we got orders to prepare to march. As six we started marching to Atlanta and got there at 9:00. We were sent to help build hospitals. Our brigade was assigned two of the best doctors of the Army of Tennessee through the recommendation of General Webster who was in Memphis while we were there on patrol duty.
Oct 2 We built our quarters.
Oct 3 We began to do hospital guard duty
Oct 4 The left wing worked.
Oct 10 The regiment began working on the hospitals for the Army of Tennessee and that continued until the 21st
Oct 21 The hospitals of the Army of Tennessee were ordered to Rucikia. In the afternoon we began to tear them down - all our work destroyed.
Oct 29 Capt. Lowe and DeGroto came back to the regiment.
Oct 30 I was out and saw the big rebel fortification from which they fired upon us while we were in the line in front of Atlanta
Nov 2 We got two months pay for July and August
Nov 8 1864 We had election. Our Co K gave Lincoln 48 votes and McClellan 4. The regiment gave Lincoln 496 and McClellan 73 - Lincoln’s majority 423
Nov 10 At 8 in the evening the whole regiment was sent downtown to load stuff belonging to the Army of Tennessee Headquarters. We worked until 12 at night
Nov. 11 Part of the town was burned down.
Nov. 12 The last wagon went out of Atlanta.
Nov. 14 In the evening we were given orders to start marching the next morning 5:00.
Nov. 15 At 6:00 a.m. we left Atlanta. We burned our camp and destroyed all that we couldn’t take with us. Most of the town was burned. We marched until 2:30 in the morning 13 miles we had marched in a southeasterly direction.
Nov. 16 Started marching again at 12:00 noon. Went 14 miles - continuing until 2:00 a.m.
Nov. 17 Started again at 7:00 a.m. This day our regiment guarded the train. We passed McDoughnel and. camped at 9 p.m.
Nov. 18 Started again at 6:30. Co. K was the advance guard of the regiment. Stopped besides the Oconulgco River – help the wagon trains over. Camped at 10 p.m.
Nov. 19 In the morning at 7:00 we started. Camped at 5:00 p.m.
Nov. 20 It had. rained during the night so it was hard marching today. We went through the little town of Hillsboro and camped in a big field. It rained hard again all night.
Nov. 21 Rained heavily during the morning - and most of the day. We had to march on the side of the road so the wagons could stay on the road. We walked
in muck and water up to the knees every step of the way. We camped on a large plantation belonging to a Union man. We suffered through a cold night after the wet day.
Nov. 22 Started marching at 7:00 a.m. and after an hour’s march we came to a beautiful fir grove. At 12:00 we came to Gordonville Junction which lies on the Savannah and Mason Railroad. We made came there. At 3:00 we heard loud cannon fire in our rear. At 8:00 p.m. we were called out and tore up and burned about 8 miles of track.
Nov. 23 We remained quiet until in the afternoon. Then we went out on the railroad to tear up and burn more. We destroyed a mile of it and then went back to camp. On the way back we were taken through a big muck swamp and it was so dark we couldn’t see our hands but it soon lighted up with the cussing and swearing that came out of every so1diers mouth as they tramped through the swamp up to the ears.
Nov. 2 Marched seven miles and camped. Got orders to be ready to move the next morning by 3:00 a.m.
Nov. 25 Our regiment was assigned to guard the pontoon and provision train. After we had marched about a mile we had to turn around as a big swamp lay ahead of us. We took another route which wasn’t much better. Later we went over hills so high and steep we could hardly see the top. We crossed the Georgia Central Railroad. we went by Fernsboro which had the previous day been burned down by our cavalry. We went about three miles beyond that and stopped for supper. Then we continued marching until midnight and camped in a field.
Nov. 26 Went through almost impassable tamarack swamps. Came to the Altamaha River and two pontoon bridges were strung over the river. Our corps - the 17th - went over one and the 15th over the other. The Altamaha is a beautiful river - deep but running wild and turbulent.
Nov. 27 Started at 5:00 a.m. The smoke and fog was so thick that it just about took our breath away. we went about a mile and camped at 11:00 a.m. Anyone found outside the camp without permission was arrested. We lay quiet the remainder of that day except those of us who were driven by hunger (regardless of the threat of being arrested) to go out hunting wild pigs.
Nov. 28 The toughest day of marching since we left Atlanta. We marched twenty two miles over an exceptionally rough stretch. We camped in the afternoon at 3:00 in a big cornfield.
Nov. 29 We went 12 miles and camped at 8:00 p.m. in a field. We heard that Savannah had been taken under our fold..
Nov. 30 Our regiment was in the rear of our division. We went over a rough route consisting of swamps, crooks and muck. At four p.m. we stopped for supper. At 5 p.m. our Company K of the regiment was sent ahead to build fire along the way so the wagon train could see enough to get through the much.
Dec. 1 The first Division of the 17th was cant out to tear up the railroad. We began at Station No. 9 and destroyed 7 miles toward Savannah on the Georgia Central Railway. We crossed a rice swamp.
Dec. 2 Started marching at 6 a.m. Our division was at the head. The 3rd division destroyed the railroad. We went 12 miles and camped beside a railroad junction by the name Miller Station No. 8 - Junction of Augusta Georgia Central Railroad 79 miles from Savannah.
Dec. 3 Marched 12 miles and camped by Station No. 4.
Dec. 4 Burned 1 ½ miles of the railroad. Took a side route and made a camp at 6 p.m. on a big plantation.
Dec. 5 We crossed a mill stream and then were taken on the double quick about four miles. Then we were formed in line. We again got orders to advance. We went about 3/4 miles. We stormed a Rebel camp which lay a short distance south of Station No. 4. We went beyond that about l ½ miles and camped. We didn’t hear any more from the rebs that day.
Dec 6 We lay quiet in our camp
Dec, 7 Started marching at 9 a.m. It rained until two p.m. At five we stopped and cooked our supper. At 6 we started moving again through swamp and much and water every step of the way. At 12 midnight we made camp on a small hill in a huge swamp.
Dec. 8 We tramped slowly through many swamps.
Dec. 9 After we had marched four miles we came upon the Rebels. We were formed in line. We advanced in line about six miles. Company A skirmished until nightfall and then were relieved by Co. D. J, C. H and E. They were on the line all night. Six were wounded. We made camp at five — 8 ½ miles from Savannah. After we were in camp we set up our breastworks.
Dec 10 The firing began at 9:00. At 12 we moved to the right over the Savannah Canal. Hard cannon fire from both sides but mostly from ours. Five miles from Savannah The Rebs breastworks are 80 yards in front of our line. It rained hard all night.
Dec. 11 We remained quiet. A little rain during the forenoon. In the evening our company K went on the skirmish line about 20 rods in advance of the main line. An exceptionally cold night. Our corps p the 17th A. C. was relieved by the 18th A. C. and we got back to our camp at 10:00 p.m. only to pick up and move 5 miles higher - so exceptionally cold and with an empty food bag.
Dec. 12 Marched from 7:00 a.m. to 1 p.m. and then stopped and made our meal. Again went over the Savannah Canal and through a big swamp. Set up camp at 9:00 p.m. ten miles from Savannah.
Dec. 13 Started at 7:00 a.m. Went about two miles then halted. During the next two hours we marched southward five miles crossed over Kings Bridge and put our knapsacks on the wagons. Marched 15 miles then went back two miles and camped on a large plantation. We then made our evening meal — and ate for this day and also the two previous ones. Fort McCallister was today taken in possession by our troops together with 250 prisoners. Our casualties were 60 men dead or wounded.
Dec. 14 In the morning we filled some of our wagons with coon. We had requisitions for rations but the provisions couldn’t be brought up the river so we had to go without food.
Dec. 17 At 8:00 a.m. our days march started. Twenty miles tramped this day. We didn’t have a mouthful of food or sip of coffee. At five in the evening we made camp and then finally we got a little food but I could have eaten everything our whole company got and gone to bed and slept soundly all night.
Dec 18 Marched 20 miles and camped one mile from the railroad. A hard day’s march on an empty stomach.
Dec 19 We tore up and destroyed a mile of railroad
Dec. 20 Today we were filled with potatoes and meat. We marched 20 miles.
Dec. 21 Started at 5:30 a.m. and went to the camp we had left the l6th. We got hardtack for the first time since the 8th.
Dec. 22 we moved our camp one mile closer to Savannah.
Dec. 23 Today we didn’t move. It wagon an exceptionally cold day.
Dec. 24. Marched north to Savannah and went to the edge of town. Then we went 2 ½ miles southeast and made camp.
Dec. 25 Happy Christmas. Nothing to eat except a little rice and a bit of meat. A mild day. I went barefoot all day because I had a sore foot from all the marching.
Dec. 26 Cold.
Dec. 27 Company K wagon on picket duty.
Dec. 2 The 17th A. C. We called together for review but because of the rain it was called off.
Dec. 29 Cold with northwest wind.
Dec. 30 Cold.
Dec. 31. Cold with a little rain. We had a festive meal to celebrate the New Year Eve - cornbread, meat and coffee.
January 1 1865 A bit cold. At noon we had company
inspection. In the evening we received orders to have company drill from
9 to 11 a.m. and battalion drill from2 to 4. p.m.
Jan. 2 In the evening we got orders to march the next day
Jan. 3 Called out at 4:00 a.m. At 2 p.m. we marched to Fort Thunderbolt 1 ½ miles from our camp. We went on board a steamboat and at about 8:00 pm we sailed off. Went out the Savannah. Stopped until morning.
Jan. 4 Started at 8:00 a.m. At 2:00 p.m. we landed at Beuford lying in Beuford’s Bay South Carolina. We went 2 ½ miles from town and made camp but many were so seasick that they didn’t get to camp until in the morning.
Jan. 5 We moved our camp about 80 rods.
Jan. 6-7-8 Clear and windy.
Jan. 9 Rain and cold.
Jan, 13 I was on company guard. We got orders to march at 5:00. We went 8 miles north of Beuford and two miles south of the water which encircles the island upon which Beuford is located.
Jan. 14 At 2:00 a.m. the 17th A. C. began to cross the water. At about 10 a.m. our regiment went over. Heavy cannon fire the entire day but we didn’t see any because we were in the rear.
Jan. 15 Went 5 and camped by a railroad 30 miles north of Beuford.
Jan. 1 We went out to forage. Got into a little skirmish but it didn’t amount to anything. We 6 ½ miles out but had to turn hack with the wagons still empty.
Jan. 19 Brigade inspection. We got orders to prepare for a two days’ scouting trip. It rained during the afternoon and all night.
Jan. 20 At 5 a.m. we left camp and marched in knee deep muck about marched knee deep in muck about six miles. Then we went around a swamp to encircle the rebs but they noticed our maneuver and moved back so we couldn’t roach them. Then we had to turn back toward camp. When we were 2 ½ miles from camp we halted and built small shelters to protect us from the rain. It rained heavily the enticer day and all throughout the night.
Jan. 21 In the morning we made it back to our camp.
Jan. 22 Company inspection. Rain.
Jan. 23-24-25 Rain. Cold.
Jan. 29 Regiment inspection. We were given orders to be ready to march the next morning at five.
Jan. 30 Went about six miles north and made camp.
Jan. 31 We remained quiet. Here we have a beautiful campground.
Feb 1 Started marching at 7:00 a.m. Our company guarded the train until it began to get dark when we were relieved. We stopped beside a swamp and then began crossing it at 9:00 p.m. Each of us was ordered to find a stick to help support us we crawled along. It took about two hours to cross over. We camped about ½ mile from the swamp
Feb. 2 Started marching at 7:00 a.m. skirmishing the whole way. At 10:00 a.m. our regiment was brought up into the line of battle. We advanced about two miles in an old field - advanced toward the enemy. Ours - the 2nd Wisconsin Regiment - was sent to support the cavalry. We stormed upon them and chased the rebs into a big swamp. We followed them into the swamp but in the evening we turned because the water was too deep and darkness overtook us. We went back about l ½ miles and then set up camp.
Feb. 3 Started marching at 6:00 a.m. Our brigade was sent to the skirmish. line - the 25th Indiana on our left and the 10th Illinois on our right. There was continuous firing on both sides and the rebel cannons were blasting. We didn’t have any cannons because it was hard to move forward on foot. On the average the water was from two to four feet deep but some places it was from six to eight feet deep. At about 2:00 p.m. we advanced over little river and began driving the rebels back toward their fortifications
At 3:00 p.m. Michael Guneson was wounded as the rebs stormed upon us a wanted to chase us out into the river. However, we drove them back five times and when it became dark they sneaked away from their fortification. Our regiment arrived at it first. We planted our flag next to the Southern Flag.
Then the Southern flag was taken down when General Mauer ordered our flag to remain. Here we were the first to storm upon them and drive the Southerners out. In this battle Company K counted six wounded: the regiment had 53 killed or wounded and altogether in the brigade there were sixty killed or wounded.
Feb. 4 We Moved our camp about 80 rods. The wounded were all sent back to Beuford.
Feb. 5 Went eight miles from the camp to forage. We got back at 7:00 p.m. In the evening we got 8 day’s rations.
Feb. 6 In the morning we got orders to march. We went 8 miles and camped in a swamp. It rained during the afternoon.
Feb, 7 Tramped in water and swamps all day. It rained all day and during the night it was very cold.
Feb. - Went 1 ½ miles and came upon the Augusta & Charleston Railroad at Midway Station. We began destroying the railroad - it had already been destroyed from this point to Savannah.
Feb. 9 At 9:00 the firing began. We were then 1 ½ miles from the South Edisto river. When we were half a mile from the river we were brought up into the line of battle. We advanced 80 rods and halted — the right wing of the regiment was sent on the line of skirmish, the left remained stationary. The bombs came like hail from the Rebel’s batteries. One man in Co. E was hit in the head and it was shattered in all directions. At 12 we of the left wing got orders to carry lumber and rails to make a path through the swamp to the river. By two the path was completed and by 3:30 the pontoon bridge was completed. Our regiment was the first to cross over. Our company stayed by the bridge until all were across. At 10:00 the enemy fled and at 11:00 we won into their fortifications aid then back across the river. Two of the members of our company were wounded. We took 20 prisoners.
Feb 10 In the morning we crossed the river again. We went scout l ½ miles out to look for some wares but found nothing. In the afternoon we got mail.
Feb. 11 Started on the move at 12. the 3rd Division was the spearhead. When they came to the north Edisto Bridge they had to retreat but later moved forward and had a lively little battle. That night we camped about l ½ miles from the bridge.
Feb. 12 In the morning our regiment was ordered out to forage. After we had gone out some distance we were ordered back to camp. We were ordered to march along the river to reinforce those who had been scent across to chase the enemy. Then we went back after our knapsacks and crossed the river. We went through the town of Orangeburg and at 8:00 p.m. Camped beside the town.
Feb. 13 Burned the railroad. I was on the advance guard.
Feb. 14 Out foraging. We didn’t find anything except two tons of flour and three wagon loads of corn.
Feb. 15 Rain. We chard cannon fire ahead of us. We went off course to the left.
Feb. 16 Started marching at 7:00. Much cannon activity from our side but no answer from the other. At 12 we came within eight of the town of Columbia. We camped on the south side of the Santee River directly across from the town.
Feb. 17 In the morning we were given orders to move. Our regiment guarded the train. After the train made camp we crossed the river and went through part of Columbia — the capital of South Carolina. We camped on the very edge of the city in a field. That night much of the city was plundered by soldiers and burned. Quite a large number of soldiers also were burned to death.
Feb. 18 Moved a distance from Columbia and began destroying the railroad. Camped 12 miles from Columbia.
Feb. 19 On picket duty. Part of our brigade was out on a scouting trip.
Feb. 20 Made camp after an eight mile trek.
Feb. 21 After marching six miles today we began burning the railroad — continued six miles and then camped on a hill.
Feb. 22 Started marching at 9:30. After tramping six miles we came to the town of Winnsboro. After that we went 16 miles over hills and valleys and camped at 9:00 on a high hill.’
Feb. 23 Marched miles today. Rain.
Feb. 24 It rained all day long. We started marching at 6:00 and continued until 5:00. We moved eight miles — every single stop knee deep in mud and water.
Feb. 25 Cold. Our brigade was in the rear of the division. Marched ten miles and camped in a forest. It rained again during the night.
Feb. 26 Marched slowly today. Stopped one hour at noon. Camped after having marched ten miles.
Feb. 27 Our regiment tore down some houses and brought the lumber to the swamp; to make a bridge across it
Feb. 28 Camped tonight after a 17 mile trek. Our brigade out to go hunt some rebs - but we turned back after we had gone about half a mile.
March 1 Today we didn’t move. Nothing to eat except corn and very little of that.
March 2 Our brigade was sent cut out on a 7 mile scouting trip. We had a skirmish in which one of our man was wounded. The enemy had nine wounded and four killed. After we had them on the run we turned around and went back to camp.
March 3 Started on the move a 7:00 a.m. After marching over 7 miles we came up the enemy and chased them to the Poodoo River. Our advance troops had set fire to the bridge. As we came to the river the enemy’s rear guard was just crossing over. The bridge collapsed and many of them went down with it. They had abandoned many cannons and a vast store of ammunition which fell into our hands. We took possession of the town and plundered it.
March 4 Rain. During the morning our regiment was in town foraging for food, fire arms and ammunition. In the afternoon we crossed the river on a pontoon bridge made of 23 boats. Then we walked knee deep in muck and water. A skirmish line was sent out in advance until we came to the woods. About 1 miles from the river we set up camp. Company K was ordered out on picket duty and just then we were ordered to fall in line as we heard a most unusual sound which we thought was some kind of cannon fire from the enemy. We went on the double quick about one mile in muck and water. Many fell and then went under completely in the muck. When we got to the place where all the noise came from we found that the enemy had set fire to some of their ammunition. We turned around and went back to camp.
March 5 A beautiful day. We didn’t move.
March 6 After a 12 mile trek we camped near the little town of Bennettsville. A beautiful day.
March 7 Started at 10 marched 10 miles and made camp at 2:00 a.m. It rained during the night.
March 8 Started at 8:00 a.m. It rained all day long. At one p.m. we crossed the line and got into North Carolina. The road was worse than any we’d been on before.
March 9 Marched in muck and water all day long
March 10 Again we marched in muck and water all day long — tramped seventeen miles today and camped ten miles from Fayetteville.
March 11 Started marching at 9:00. was General Moures’ plan to be the first into Fayetteville but the 14th and 20th Army Corps came first.
March 12 Went through a part of town continued on and had a skirmish with the enemy. Killed some of them and drove the others away
March 13 Went three miles and encountered more rebs. We chased them two miles and then went back to camp.
March 14 The afternoon we were given orders to move our camp two miles. In the evening we got orders to march.
March 15 Our regiment guarded the train. Our advance guard had an encounter with the enemy. Three of our men were killed as they were wading through small stream. When we got to the stream we left the train there unti1 the next day.
March 16 Rain. We didn’t move.
March 17 At 5:00 a.m. our day began. We went over a route which was almost impassable.
March 18 On the march 13 hours today.
March 19 Our day started at 6 a.m. Our brigade guarded the train. We heard heavy cannon activity the whole day to our left. The 14th Corps had come upon the enemy and battled furiously with them... We stopped about an hour and then continued on. We crossed a swamp and made camp at about four.
March 20 At one a.m. we were ordered to pack. At three we started out. We went back some in the direction from which we had see and then went to the right. We marched twenty miles following the river. In the afternoon we reached the place where our forces were battling with the rebels. We were drawn in line but nothing came into sight. After we had waited on the line two or three hours we went back to cam Some short distance away the enemy had stormed a battery (part of the 15th corps) seven times but every time they were driven back with heavy losses.
March 21 At 9:03 a.m. got orders to be ready to march. At 10:00 it began raining. At 11:00 our march commenced. We went on the right on the line and advanced upon the enemy. We drove then about 125 reds into a swamp. We got orders to lie down. Then enemy charged first to the right and then to the left of our division and drove them back. Our regiment which was in the middle was ordered to fall back a few stops. Just than the enemy came in sight about 20 rods off. There were two lines about 10 rods apart and each line was two ranks deep. Our wall directed firing did good work and after a short but hot time drove them to flight in great disorder. (They stood about 20 minutes and took whatever we sent them but that was as long as they could take it.) We than got orders to hold our fire. Three of our company were wounded. One died the same day. Another 1ost his legs and died three days later. In our regiment there 23 wounded or killed.
March 22 Our division went out in the morning to attack again but during the night the enemy had retired through Bentonville (the little town from which the battle gets its name). We advanced into Bentonville where the Rebels had left their wounded and also the few of our wounded which they had taken (when they forced our right flank back they took the few wounded which they came upon).
March 23 At 8:00 a.m. we began a march in the direction of Goldsboro. This night we camped l6 miles from Bentonville and seven miles from Goldsboro.
March 24. We moved our camp about one mile. Our regiment stationed beside the river to guard the pontoon bridge.
March 31 Moved to Goldsboro where the main part of our group was in camp.
April 1 Company K was sent back to the river to get lumber for the regiment headquarters.
April 2 We lay quiet in camp.
April 3 Co. K and C were on picket duty.
April 5 I went to the 18th Wisconsin and visited with Ha1vor Sauvo and Peter Tonos.
April 6 It was rumored that Richmond had been taken.
April 9 In the evening we got orders to march.
April 10 Started on the move at 11:00 a.m. It rained during the afternoon and all night.
Apr 11. Camped after marching six miles.
April 12 Just as were leaving camp in the morning we got the wonderful news that General Grant had taken Richmond General Lee and his whole army. Today we went four miles over a route which was almost impossible
April 13 Marched 17 miles and then camped.
April 14 At 5:00 p.m. today we arrived in Ra1eigh the capital of North Carolina. We marched through town and set up our camp about one mile west of it.
April 15 Ordered to march at 8:00 a.m. It was raining heavily. Our regiment was to guard the train today. When we were ready to leave we heard the news that General Johnston wanted to surrender to General W. T. Sherman. That was the happiest news we had ever gotten in the south. A great hurrah arose along the entire line as far as the ear could hear. We were ordered to stay in camp.
April 16 Easter Sunday. we were out looking for lumber. We found some and built huts for ourselves. It was a beautiful day.
April 17 In the afternoon Company K was sent out with wagons to secure lumber for headquarters. In the evening when we returned we heard with great sorrow that Abraham Lincoln had been murdered.
April 18 It was rumored that Johnston had surrendered.
April 23 Many camp rumors today
April 24 The 17th A. C, was reviewed by General Grant and General Sheridan. In the afternoon we were given orders to march the next day.
April 25 Marched at 9:00. We went 9 miles and camped in a beautiful grove ten miles from Raleigh.
April 26 We cleaned up our campground. In the evening we got the information that Johnston on this day had surrendered. Shouts of hurrah and singing was to be heard everywhere.
April 27 We went back to Raleigh.
April 2 Marching orders for Richmond.
April 29 Marched. In the evening we crossed the Noise River. Rained.
April 30 We didn’t move. Had inspection.
May 1 Our days a march began at 8:00 a.m. We went through Forestsvil1e. Today we went sixteen miles and made camp at 6:00 p.m. one mile from Fair River.
May 2 Started at 6:00 a.m. Crossed the Fair River. Marched twenty miles and camped at 4:00 p.m.
May 3 Our days march began at 4:30 a.m. At noon we stopped near Ridgeway Station. There we left the railroad and went northward. We went 23 miles today and camped beside the Roanoke River.
May 4 Didn’t move until 4:00 p.m.
May 5 Started. marching at 2:00 a.m. Today we marched 31 miles and camped in a grove of trees forty miles from Petersburg. In the evening we got whiskey - two canteens for Co. K.
May 6 Started at 5:00 a.m. and marched 26 miles. We camped beside Dinnwiddi Courthouse. Today many became ill from the strenuous march and the intense heat
May 7 Started at 4:30 a.m. camped three miles from Petersburg beside the Appomattox River.
May 8 Our days trek began at 8:00 a.m. We went through Petersburg. We were reviewed by General Howard and General Sheridan. We went over the Appomattox on the way toward Richmond. Made camp seventeen miles from Richmond. It rained during the night.
May 9 Marched at 7:00 a.m. Went 16 miles and at 2:00 p.m. camped one mile from Richmond.
May 10 Clear and warm. Sheridan and his cavalry tore through town on the way to Washington. Many of the 15th and 17th A. C. tore down store houses and took their content.
May 11 The 14th and 20th A. C. went through town on the way to Washington. In the evening I went to the 18th Wisconsin Regiment
May 12 Cold in the morning. we of the 17th A. C. marched through the city of Richmond. We were marched by the prison and we were reviewed by General Halack. Camped at 5:00 a mile north of the city in an open field where three years previous1y McClellan had battled.
May 13 Started at 5:00 a.m. Went 15 miles and camped near Hanover Courthouse at 2:00 p.m.
May 14 At 11:00 we moved again. Went 19 mi1es today and camped 12 miles from Fredericksburg. Our camp ground was on a part of a battlefield.
May 16 Our march commenced at 4:30 a.m. and took us through valleys over hills and streams of varying sizes. Once in a while we found graves but not as many as we had been led to believe — that the countryside between Richmond & Fredericksburg was a continuous cemetery. At 11:00 a.m. we went through Fredericksburg. We crossed the ‘Rappahannock and camped 19 miles west from Fredericksburg.
May 17. Our division didn’t move unti1 the 4th & 5th had passed. We moved at 11:00 a.m., went 18 miles and camped 36 miles from Alexandria.
May 18 Marched 20 miles today — began at 5:00 a.m. and followed a crooked route. We camped on a big hill.
May 19 Our regiment went out with wagons to help the 4th Division through the muck.
May 20 Rain in the afternoon.
May 21 Rain all day long.
May 22 We were ordered to move our camp. We were issued new clothing.
May 23 Went through Alexandria. Camped four miles from Washington. The 20th and 14th corps were reviewed in Washington by Grant Sherman and the President together with a part of his cabinet. General Scott was also present.
May 24 In the morning we were given orders to leave our knapsacks and proceed in light marching order. At 8:00 a.m. we crossed the Potomac. At 11:00 a.m. we went past the reviewing officers of the grand review at Washington. At 3:00 p.m. we made camp three miles north of the city.
May 25 We regulated our camp.
May 26 I was in Washington and visited the capital.
May 30 I was in town and visited the Smithsonian Institute.
June 4 The soldiers who came to our regiment in 1863 were sent to the 16th Wisconsin. We were released from Uncle Sans service and at the same time taken out of the 17th Army Corps.
June 5 Our division was sent to Louisville, Kentucky
June 7 The 25th Wisconsin went home.
June 9 I went to see the graves of the soldiers who had died in the vicinity of Washington. It was the most beautiful cemetery I had ever seen.
June 11 We of the 32nd Wisconsin Volunteers were mustered out of the U.S. service at 6:15 p.m.
June 12 At 9:00 a.m. we left camp and marched through Washington. In the afternoon we got on the train. After dark we started rolling
June 13 At 6:00 a.m. we arrived in Baltimore. We were taken to a big auditorium the Soldiers Home where we were given a feast of meat and bread and coffee. We left Baltimore later the same morning. At 5:00 p.m. we went through Harrisburg the capital of Pennsylvania. During the night We went over the Allegheny Mountains - 3 locomotives were needed to pull us to the top.
June 14 As we went clown down the mountains we went by many hard coal mines. At 3:00 p.m. we came to Pittsburg where we changed cars. We of 32nd & the 2nd Minnesota battery were taken to a huge hail which could accommodate a thousand manmen. Four long tables were decked with much good food. In one end of the hall was an inscription made with large gilded letters “Honor the Brave”. Under the inscription was a life size statute of the Goddess of Peace. A brass band played all the while we were there. The galleries were filled with people who each had to pay ten cents just to see how we conducted ourselves. When we had finished eating we gave the residents of Pittsburg three rousing hurrahs. We behaved respectably. The citizens of Pittsburg accorded us honor and respect both by word and by deed. At 5:00 p.m. we left town. Handkerchiefs and flags could be seen in all windows. The air was filled with shouts of “Hurrah and Welcome Home”
June 15 At 5:30 a.m. we came to Cleveland, Ohio. There too we got a very delicious meal. At 2:00 a.m. we boarded a steamboat which took us to Detroit where we arrived at 4:30 p.m. There we were given supper. At 9:00 p.m. we left Detroit on the train and rode all night.
June 16 AT 7:00 a.m. we came to Grand Haven where we got our breakfast. Then we boarded a large steamboat. We landed in Milwaukee at four p.m. There we were given the coldest reception since we left Goldsboro although we did got supper. Then we went to Camp Washburn.
June 23 We were paid off and given our discharges.
June 24 Left Milwaukee and arrived home at 7:00 after having been gone two years, ten months and four days.
A list of the clothes I got from Uncle Sam during the Civil War
2 pr. Underwear 1.00
2 Shirts 1.76
Wool Blanket 2.75
Rubber Blanket 1.75
2 pr. Stockings 0.50
1 Cap .63
Oshkosh, Wisconsin — October 12, 1862
2 pr. Stockings 0.52
2 Shirts 1.76
2 pr. Stockings 0.58
2 pr. Underpants 1.10
Memphis — January 12, 1863
Too coat 7.21
2 pr. stockings 0.64
Wool Blanket 3.60
2 pr. stockings 0.64
Memphis — November 12, 1863
2 pr. Stockings 0.64
1 pr. underpants .060
Memphis — January 28, 1864
1. pr. Trousers 2.50
2 pr. stockings 0.64
Cairo, Il.— March 23, 1864
1 Blouse 2.48
1 pr. Shoes 1.48
Decatur, Ill. —June 13. 1864
East Point — September 14. 1864.
1. pr. Trousers 2.50
Atlanta — November 1, 1864
End Page 32
Rubber B1anko 3.10
1 pr. Shoes 2.20
2 pr. Stockings 0.70
Beuford, S. C. — January 10, 1865
1 Blouse 4.80
1 pr. Trousers 4.75
2 pr. Stockings 0.76
1 pr. Shoes 2.70
Goldsboro, N. C. — April 1, l865
2 Shirts 4.65
1 Cap 1.13
2 pr. Stockings 0.96
Alexandria, Virginia — May 22, 1865
Summary of costs of Civil War Soldier costs.
2nd year 36.51
3rd year 25.03
End of Diary
Civil Way Diary Credits
The document translated from Norwegian into
Mr. Alf Sathor
1570 NE 18th
Summer of 1963
Transcribed and typewritten from Mr. Sathor’s longhand by:
Marjie Leo Richey
402 Noron Avenue NE
The physical and actual origin of this document, in its many formats, is not known. It had been copied and distributed extensively. Permission is not expressly obtained for use of this document because the original translating and transcribing authors cannot be found. The diary’s re-transcription is tentative, spellings and words may be inconsistent and incorrect because the source document itself is murky
Transcribed from typewritten text and edited for digital publication by
Knuth, Augusta, War between the states, Fredericksburg, Civil, War, North, South, Appomattox, Petersburg, Kittelman, Richmond, Leigram, Immigrant, Mercenary, Rio, Wisconsin, Ingrid, Vaalor, Farmer, 1889, 1839, Ole,, Lt. Low, Norwegian, German, Infantry, Chulahoma., Tennessee, Mississippi, Minnesota, Holly Springs, War between the States, Augusta WI, Wisc, Wis, Muster-out
This transcription is copyright dennis knuth
Civil War Diary Carl Knuth Charles later founding patriarch William Family Wisconsin American Kittelson Leigram signed served father immigrant founder Augusta Ole life service Immigrants Norwegian German English speaking agonies Infantry mustered-in mustered-out Milwaukee Reading Army cost conscription public incensed military conscribed place Draft Riots detailed mercenary pay offer veteran opportunity young Americans gain foothold generalization History October Norway Nebraska Minnesota Dakota married Ingrid Vaalor Alma Anna Cora occupation Farmer School Teacher Riverside Cemetery Aberdeen translators enlisted reason August morning given Columbus train Oshkosh doctor Injured Inducted paid month home furlough seven bounty Camp Bragg noon Chicago afternoon Cairo Couple steamboat Ky Memphis Tennessee made miles east marched woods cornfield Chalohoma Mississippi rained supplies sustain scarce previous Wayzot College Hill Abbeville picket duty Andrew Tosnos post cold Musk Waterford Holley Springs enemy hours late destroyed government stores Holly stopping Grand Junction march regiment men officers namely Richmond company guard rail Trenton infection January heard Jackson Snow Feb orders sick pneumonia patrol months scouting wagon drawn mules May loud gong sounded rustling naked lives tents lined daybreak June festivity state fluent July Pretty negro shot death stillness Elias Erickson rain fever French whiskey wine John Ambroson Soronson pack Captain Grout Halvor Sauvo last quarters expedition Germantown further Colliersville quartered small fort rests muck feet open flood hand encounter dead rebels heavy field clothing pound Brigade review leave Chilse Lafayette water knees mile LaGrange courthouse railroad rails Southerners repaired once Moscow ride line pursued battle losses killed cavalry casualties houses Inactive today sat own tore Methodist quarters horses mounted recruits second holiday Uncle guards provision drunk off pitch swamps fought bullets roared flies sugar lay devil tracks southward marching southeasterly stopped drank coffee tramped Coldwater Mount Pleasant overnight estimation snowed sky frozen Lucky beasts country compensation corpse foxes lot earth cripple among former Guerillas escaped prepare Today tomorrow sweat spilled alarm permitted land Helena Vicksburg Hurlbot Grant's operation easterly lie bridge Champion guarded rebel ordinance store mail Capital Purl floating loose Mobile prepared Brandon stragglers named prisoners swamp reviewed Generals forest companies Decatur river rations valleys hills Meridian corner hospital destroy track skirmish Marion None State Fee including station Lockhard found informed order return Union valley major privates abandoned supper starvation quarter Canton house Dreck pass rats Era Trouble landed island tug hooked guns haste luck Arkansas Guneson General gather aboard steamer Hillman sailed freeze blankets provisions captured Jennie Deans Illinois routed Cloud Ohio Paducah previously hour flag truce occur effort harbor plundered full encampment lighted free Savannah inland Waterloo Alabama Grove Spring slush knee lies stream countryside vallies plantations varying sizes Florence Shale Creek rods Bulsie mountains streams eleven Elk pontoon Aril rest times mounting Roll guarding weather battery shower Warn fortifications Vitch troops fortification ont aakod firing York Indiana removed Morgan railway Andnes Oleson Road storm Corp Frank Blair James Howe Courtland corps Iowa strong package Office Sommerville watch Dam tired heat permission former laid trees Petersburg settle express fatigue ration minutes flying heaven bank whistles front hundred surprise mules hungry cannons honor speeches speaker Mr Officer listener Moltan surrendered Atlanta Grant lieutenants sergeants voluntarily Carlton detail families overtook traco thorn hack regiments ambush encircle lieutenant farther set spearhead Turnspring happened platoon reached sides penetrate edge retire battleground Chattanooga Marietta unloaded lain cannon Sergeant Whiten forward Fiery sunshine Harry Lovejoy tree Stephan Trent rounds Anton White rear packed hastily breastworks quiet southwesterly shifted rested narrow brush sun lived past length showed stormed possession notion hailed hail bodies noses point official notification Jonesboro ruins ambulances loaded wounded rebs church housed notified fallen lap mans lively clang vigorous repay struggle enemies thunder Babylon palaces stinking odor Jefferson Davis cabinet pale hells heart anguish perhaps prayed servant Satan might protected underwritten blood erected rumor evacuated dress parade DeGroto jar butter Sept help hospitals Webster quarters Rucikia Capt Lowe Oct fired election Co Lincoln votes majority downtown load stuff start passed McDoughnel Oconulgco Hillsboro plantation suffered Gordonville Mason hands cussing swearing mouth steep hardly Georgia Fernsboro midnight impassable tamarack strung Altamaha turbulent smoke fog remainder hunger threat hunting pigs rough stretch fold crooks head Miller mill short hear step huge formed skirmished nightfall Canal yards forenoon main pick higher halted Kings knapsacks author ones McCallister coon requisitions mouthful sip gone slept soundly stomach potatoes hardtack southeast Happy mild barefoot northwest festive cornbread battalion Thunderbolt Beuford lying Bay Carolina seasick encircles located amount still noticed maneuver roach shelters protect enticer relieved stick skirmishing support foot places eight Michael sneaked planted Southern Mauer remain sixty Charleston Midway destroying Edisto stationary bombs hit shattered path fled aid members look retreat forage reinforce scent tons flour loads course Columbia side Santee number trek Winnsboro high single stop mud tonight hunt run Poodoo collapsed ammunition foraging sound fell fire Bennettsville road seventeen Fayetteville Moures plan encountered wading furiously forces battling nothing reds charged middle stops lines ranks wall hot flight stood hold died legs retired Bentonville forced flank stationed group Peter Tonos six leaving wonderful news Lee route April raleigh heavily ready Johnston surrender happiest gotten south Sunday looking huts secure lumber headquarters returned sorrow Abraham Lincolns murdered rumored rumors Sheridan Raleigh up information singing Forestsville sixteen Ridgeway northward Roanoke forty canteens Dinnwiddi strenuous intense Appomattox Howard Washington prison Halack north McClellan Hanover miles Fredericksburg battlefield graves Rappahannock passed crooked ordered issued President Scott present proceed light Potomac reviewing regulated Smithsonian Institute released Sans time Louisville Kentucky vicinity Volunteers mustered US rolling auditorium Soldiers feast meat bread Baltimore Harrisburg Pennsylvania Allegheny locomotives pull coal mines Pittsburg thousand manmen long tables good food end inscription gilded letters Under size statute Goddess Peace brass played galleries people residents rousing hurrahs respectably citizens respect Handkerchiefs flags shouts Cleveland meal Detroit rode night Haven Washburn list clothes got Sam Overcoat Topcoat Trousers Underwear Hat Shirts Rubber Shoes Stockings Underpants Wool Blanket November Blouse Ill September Page Alexandria Virginia Summary costs Soldier year Credits translated Alf Sathor Salem Summer Transcribed typewritten Sathors longhand Marjie Leo Richey Noron Oregon physical origin formats obtained original translating transcribing dairies re-transcription tentative spellings inconsistent incorrect Transcribed edited publication Kittelman Rio Lt Chulahoma WI Wisc Wis Muster-out transcription copyright